The first mass produced car in the United States was the Model T Ford, invented by Henry Ford. Essence of the invention? Design of a frame whose axles and wheels could rotate as fast as demanded by the energy produced by the car’s engine, energy produced at rate of E=0.5mv².
The Behind-the-Scenes hero?
Sir Isaac Newton, the scientist who discovered that every engine, which ever can be made to power machines on land produces energy at rate of E=0.5mv². Absent discovery of constancy of E=0.5mv², none of cars, or trains, or tractors (mass production of food, such that 5% of the population of the USA produces enough food for the remainder 95%) would be feasible.
Absent the tractor, which is facilitated by theoretical work of Sir Isaac Newton, it would take about 60% of a population for agriculture to produce enough food for entirety of a country.
The Wilbur Brothers invented the airplane, a machine initially snidely regarded as no more than a metal contraption that could fly — a machine no more than the non-pragmatic fancy of two eccentric brothers. Many years later, most of mankind is grateful that the Wilbur brothers were eccentric enough to invent the airplane.
The Behind-the-scenes Hero?
Sir Isaac Newton, the scientist who discovered the gravitational constant. While Albert Einstein since has refined the discovery, the gravitational constant remains the average of all feasible realizations of gravity, all of which asymptotically approach the gravitational constant. Einstein’s work on general relativity corroborates robustness of Sir Isaac Newton’s theoretical insights.
Whenever an airplane’s thrusters and flaps are opened up, and the air surges in, lifting the nose of the plane up, it is knowledge of exactly how much force is required for overcoming of gravity that facilitates continuity of upward flight.
If the force produced by a plane’s engines were to be too high, the plane could disintegrate. If the force were to turn out ‘too low’, the plane would fall back to earth. Absent discovery of the gravitational constant by Sir Isaac Newton, the force required for overcoming of gravity would be unknown, and the airplane would be an impossibility.
The fine line of which the gravitational constant is representative — feasibility of each of ‘too high’ or ‘too low’ — provides evidence for one of Sir Albert Einstein’s most insightful observations, namely, existence of a ‘Creator Mind’ as source of all of creation.
It normatively is impossible for ‘Chance’ to produce a fine line between ‘too low’ and ‘too high’.
Each of the USSR and the USA sent men into orbit around the earth, then eventually to the moon and back between the late 1950s and 1960s. Given a space shuttle would have to depend on gravitational pulls that subsist outside of earth’s atmosphere for navigation of space, while airplanes already existed, their technology — engines, thrusters, and flaps — were inappropriate to flights that would proceed outside of earth’s atmosphere.
In light of inappropriateness of airplane technology, design of shuttles, which would depend primarily on earth’s gravitational pull for orbiting of, and returning to the earth became an imperative. Success at orbiting of the earth and returning to the earth laid grounds for design of shuttles that, successfully, would take American Astronauts or Russian Cosmonauts to surface of the moon, achievements famously labelled, ‘a giant step for mankind’ by Astronaut Neil Armstrong.
The Behind-the-Scenes Hero?
Sir Albert Einstein, the scientist whose theoretical work produced the knowledge, to wit, whether in earth’s atmosphere, or in space, E=mc². Whenever a space shuttle jettisons its thrusters, it is because while the thruster facilitates satisfaction of E=mc² in earth’s atmosphere, subsequent to entry into space, same thrusters become a hindrance to satisfaction of exact same law, as such, are jettisoned. Subsequent to entry into outer space, a space shuttle makes its journey using, primarily, gravitational forces, all of which are governed by E=mc². Absent discovery of unifying principle of E=mc² by Albert Einstein, neither of orbiting of the earth nor journeys into outer space, or GPS technology would be feasible.
It was, among other things, constancy of E=mc² in all of the known universe that led Sir Albert Einstein to declare belief in existence of a Creator Mind as source of all creation.
A probabilistic universe cannot be reconciled with constancy that is essence of ‘Law of Relativity’.
Every innovation that has pragmatic value, such as, cars, trains, tractors, airplanes, orbiting of the earth by satellites that render GPS navigation possible, etc., is predicated on discovery of some ‘always true’ principle that holds true in each and every circumstance of a particular sphere. More often than not, potential of such truths for producing of new pragmatic innovations that render life on earth more enjoyable is not evident at timing of their discovery.
The Evidence? The first Model T Ford was produced in 1908, the first airplane in 1903. The principles, E=0.5mv² and the gravitational constant were discovered by Sir Isaac Newton prior to his death in 1726/1727. Albert Einstein had produced his Theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity by 1916. Empirical corroboration for his theories would not arrive until about 1938, and capacity of the theory for facilitation of space travel would not be actualized until the late 1950s and 1960s.
By the way, if a model is accepted to be mathematically true, it only can be corroborated by empirical evidence, is not subject to empirical evidence for its truthfulness. The rationale is straightforward. A theoretical (mathematical) model is based on truths already generally accepted to be true that are uniquely combined for solving of a theoretical challenge. An empirical test of the mathematical model can be flawed, as such, cannot, in relation to the mathematical model, be precedent.
But then, I digress.
Suppose that while their peers acknowledged their work to be true, that absent awareness of immediate practical uses, they discarded the work, as such, subsequent to demise of Sirs Newton and Einstein, knowledge of the ‘always true’ results became lost to man. Well, you and I would be without cars, trains, tractors, airplanes, and GPS.
In absence of cars, there would not be tarred roads — tarred roads are not good for hooves and legs of horses. In absence of tractors, 60% of us would have to be involved in agriculture for viability of a country subsisting on well balanced diets.
Difficult to imagine a world without tarred roads and a world in which one in two persons either are farmers or involved with pastoral agriculture?
Well, shows how much we owe to men who search for eternal truths that are foundations of new pragmatic innovations, innovations that alter trajectory of man’s history and welfare.
Absent invention of the tractor, you could have it in you to be the next George Soros or Warren Buffett, but yet be stuck in Agriculture, because man did not ever arrive at flexibility of choice necessary for development of rich financial architecture.
Next time you are enjoying all of the pragmatic innovations that bless us on earth, take a moment to be thankful for the men who dedicate their lives to discovery of eternal truths that are foundation for all of the pragmatic innovations that render life on earth more enjoyable.